Constitutional types of dogs
Constitutional type of animal is composed (in a number of generations) as a result of adaptation of organisms to environmental conditions of existence and the nature of the animal.
All this is reflected in the change in the external forms of animal and its behavior. Therefore, in practice, constitutional type is usually determined on the exterior and on behavior.
Teachings of Academician IP Pavlov on the types of higher nervous activity of dogs was closely linked to patterns of constitutional types.
In the practice of dog breeding a number of examples illustrate the close relationship the type of higher nervous activity in addition to the type of dog. For example – the cultivation of the lung and attenuated type Doberman pinscher led to the emergence of highly excitable animals with weak inhibitory process and differentiation. Program-breeders have always preferred among Caucasian and Central Asian Shepherd dog drier and noted that large, heavy and wet dog in most cases low-level work. Heavy and wet with long hair driving huskies as inactive and nevynoslivy. It is noticed that the breed of dogs, which is characterized by crude type of constitution, always sluggish and lethargic in comparison with the rocks, possessing a strong and dry type of constitution.
«Fortress of the Constitution – the basis of all productivity» – this zootechnic principle put forward by Academician MF Ivanov, is fully applicable to the dogs. High excitability, agility, endurance, proper form and harmony of the addition, as the main indicators of quality of service dogs, achieved through the selection and the struggle for a dry and robust constitution type of dog.
When using dogs with the characteristics of raw, rough-type constitution created grave, slow-moving but low productivity, but the original appearance dogs. Because of the strong, mobile dog like our Central Asian and Caucasian Shepherd regime change content, through enhanced feeding and selection launched modern heavy and loose Saint Bernard.
«Amateur» interest in the dog along with the improvement of breeds of dogs contributed to development of new, weak in vitality, but the original in the form of dog breeds for decorative purposes by using the sign of weakening of the constitution.
Because of strong hounds were put constitutional weakened rock levretok, naked Mexican dogs l etc. Of strong and durable, with great vigor Terriers derived dwarf forms Toy Terriers. The same is true for relatives with them pinschers. Primitive Spanish Pointing Dogs, which gave further culture in all breeds nark, were the progenitors and miniature breeds such as Toy spanieli, King Charles. Poudel, Spitz, Schnauzers, along with strong and powerful types are also dwarf forms a weakened constitution.
Constitution is inherited and develops completely under the influence of the environment acting on the body of the animal and modifying its metabolism. Consequently, the type of constitution is not something permanent, not changing throughout the life of the animal, but every age has its specific interaction with the environment and its specific type of constitution.
Long (over several generations), the cultivation of dogs in the changed conditions of climate, housing, feeding and the use of dogs to change the Constitution. An example may serve the above-mentioned St. Bernard, as well as the formation of a special type of dog related to the steppe regions of the Caucasus mountains, where under the influence of a dry, warm climate and usage formed a «steppe» Thai Caucasian Shepherd.
Diverse breeds of dogs, formed under the influence of different causes (the origin of various ancestors, excretion and distribution in different conditions of climate, feeding and maintenance, a broad specialization of dogs for many kinds of service, hunting, sports and recreational purposes), has led to the formation of highly specialized species that differ among themselves on the types of the Constitution.
Enough to compare two types of dogs: a huge St. Bernard, has a massive and brutal core, with a light greyhound with a refined and light bone structure and other drastically different characteristics. Menad these, extreme types there are intermediate, with less differences and, finally, transitional types. The same constitutional differences exist within each breed.
Inbreeding types like to repeat the systematics of the constitutional types, but the differences between them, as it were smoothed prolonged by careful selection, but without violating the general principle of structure, these differences among the animals fall within a «type» and «aspect», typical of the breed .
So in each species of animals can be seen as relatively light, mobile dry and thin build, and heavy, damp, ill addition to the sluggish and phlegmatic temperament.
Great importance in establishing the doctrine of the constitution of animals were unemployed Russian scientists, livestock experts.
Professor PN Kuleshov developed a classification of constitutional types of animals on the basis of differences in the development and functions of body parts and found there were four constitutional type (loose, coarse, dense, soft).
Academician MF Ivanov in his work on the constitution of farm animals introduced addition to the four types of constitutional fifth «strong» type of constitution.
Constitution attached great importance to their work, and Professor EA Bogdanov.
regard to the above in the dog found five types of constitution, which fits all variety of dog breeds and their inbreeding group.
Loose – crude type of constitution.
characterized by the fact that the reflexes are produced relatively slowly and braking skills easily. The dog has a broad massive, rounded, with short limbs and torso of a large volume, but loose and muscles. Head short, broad, high cheek-bones, with prominent forehead and a sharp transition to a muzzle. Muzzle short, blunt, sometimes upturned, with strongly developed, moist lips; frequent snacks. Eyes straight set, deep-set, with drooping eyelids. The neck is short with a suspension, often loaded. Chest broad, expanding to the bottom. Abdomen is omitted. Limbs with straight, raw knuckles, the movements slow and sluggish dog. Subcutaneous cellular tissue is strongly developed: the skin is loose, folded, inelastic; dog has a tendency to obesity. The scalp is composed of coarse hair and undercoat. Movement of dogs slow and sluggish. The dog later and slowly emerging. Typical examples of this type of constitution are the St. Bernard, Newfoundland, blood hounds and other
Coarse type constitution.
Type of higher nervous activity is close to balanced, calm. Strong, with well-developed massive bone structure and the massive musculature, these large dogs reach their development by 3-4 years. The head is broad, massive, high cheek-bones, but an elongated shape. The muzzle is blunt, forming a parallel with the line of forehead lines. Tubes thick, dry or slightly drooping. Eyes set straight, dry, protected for centuries. The neck is short, massive, low set. Chest broad, deep. Abdomen tucked up slightly (a cylindrical shell). Limbs not long (the dog seems to squat) with shortened shin and knee straightened out angles and hock. The skin is thick, tightly stretched or forms folds in the neck (dewlap). The coat is coarse with well-developed hair and thick undercoat. Robust type of dog is characterized by great vitality and adaptability to specific local conditions and use. An example of rough-type constitution are Caucasian, Central Asian Shepherd, north-eastern driving huskies, etc.
Strong type constitution.
Type of higher nervous activity, balanced, moving. For this type of dog is characterized by a well-developed skeleton, with a strong solid, dry, usually in relief released under the thin skin musculature. Pronounced sexual dimorphism (male differs by the type of females). Formed relatively quickly. Leather moderately thick or thin, elastic, tightly stretched, does not form folds. The head is moderately broad skull, wedge shaped, elongated. The forehead is flat or slightly convex. Muzzle of its length comes close to the skull, is sharp and parallel to the forehead. Lips are usually dry. Eyes set obliquely. The neck is dry, the length is equal to the head, normal or high planted. Breast in the context of an oval shape, deep. Abdomen tucked up above the chest. Limbs moderately long (the dog does not seem nizkonogoy) with the length of the shin and pronounced angles of the hock. The coat is of medium thickness varies from short and smooth hair to long, hard and soft. The presence of undercoat different. Examples are: hounds, European Shepherd, Great Dane, Boxer and others.
Dry type constitution.
Type of higher nervous activity largely unchecked. Characteristic strong, some delicate bone structure and strong, but of long and thin muscles. Sexual dimorphism (the difference between males from females) sharply pronounced. Formed quickly. The skin is thin, tight-fitting elastic. The head is elongated, relatively narrow, flat forehead and a weakly pronounced shift towards the muzzle. Muzzle length is close to the skull, pointed or sharp, parallel to the forehead or omission. Lips are dry, swampy, often tight. Eyes obliquely set. Occurs overshot. The neck is dry, highly placed, chest deep, oval. Abdomen tucked. Limbs with long oval in the context of bone. The dog seems vysokonogoy, light, and sometimes square. Hock due to long leg dismissed ago, sharply delineated and well defined. The coat is diverse. An example of this type are: hounds, huskies, dobermap pinscher, zrdel-Terriers, Collies, pointer, setter, Fox Terriers and others.
Gentle type constitution.
Has increased excitability with a tendency to nervousness, thin and very weak bones and poorly developed musculature. It often occurs dwarfish stature and various anomalies associated with degeneration and contained artificial selection to this feature. Head usually with a round spherical skull and a narrow and short muzzle. The eyes are large, often protruding. Front of the skull of some breeds is so short and poorly developed that there is a snack, a reduced number of teeth in upper jaw, teeth continue to grow across a single jaw, hypoplastic, geminate, resulting in a tongue does not fit in the mouth, and the dog has to keep it sticking out even in the jaws of closed, etc. The skin is very thin, stretched, hair ranges from very short to separate completely hairless places (chest, abdomen) and to very long, curly. Hair is thin, weak, no undercoat. To this group may include all dwarf species Terriers, Pinchers, Spitz, lapdogs, African naked, levretok and other dogs of this type of constitution is not viable.
The above constitutional types are not always found in the «pure». Most dogs have characteristics transitional to the adjacent types – to describe such individuals combine both names, and the first put the name of the type and the given case prevails, for example, crude – crude, rude, crude, rude – sturdy, strong – rough; strong-dry, dry – strong, dry – easy, easy – dry. Deviation from the normal constitutional types is called «redevelopment». Redevelopment can be either in the direction of excessive delicacy, making the dog more easily, with weak bones, etc., and in the direction of moisture. The description should indicate the extent of such redevelopment. For example: redevelopment. – Gentle; redevelopment – raw. In each breed of dogs you can find individuals with traits re-development, not in a pronounced form, and within the constitutional types, characteristic of this breed. Redevelopment, expressed, and the sharp degree, borders with degeneration.