History of security dog breeding
A very long appreciated the useful qualities of dogs, and tamed her before the other animals.
Excavations of the ancient Greek settlements show that the dog is accompanied by a man in the Stone Age. Perhaps the people of that era used a dog to warn of the approach of wild animals and hunting. As the varied conditions of human life, evolved, and the appointment of a dog.
In the extant works of ancient Greek writers Plutarch and Pliny there are indications that the dog is very appreciated and widely used for various kinds of economic activity of men (hunting, guarding cattle, carry heavy loads and in military affairs).
ancient Germans in exchange for a good dog was given two horses.
Man being interested in the development of economically useful traits in dogs, sought to improve these useful qualities. For several generations, he led the selection of such dogs, which were highly pronounced helpful for him the quality and prints of dogs for different uses. It appeared the dog-military, hunting, herding, driving, etc.
Use dogs in the military share of first limited only guard duty or for direct attack on the enemy.
Historical monuments show that even for 4600 years BC, the dogs used, for example, for the protection of the fortresses. At night the dogs taken out of the fortress walls, gates locked, and the dogs left outside the fortress. Since the dogs used to eat in the city, they naturally stayed the night under its walls. At the slightest rustle dog barking woke the guards.
The Egyptian monuments found images archers, with their attendant dogs used for attack and persecution of enemies.
In the wars of the slave period, the dogs were fighting in the first rank, in the second were slaves, and the third – the warriors.
To attack the enemies and incurring guard service dogs used by the Romans, the Huns, the Celts and the Teutons.
For the same military fields were dogs in the Middle Ages. Dogs accompanying transports and transport, dressed in special armor with spikes to protect from attack the enemy’s cavalry.
During the war of Spain with France in the 4000 Spanish troops were dogs, which at the battle near the city of Valencia had a great help to the Spanish troops.
With the advent of firearms the role of dogs as a means of attack on the enemy fell, but as the development of military affairs were all new and new types of dogs as an aid. There were dogs messengers, porters unloaded, etc. The speed of movement, the sense of smell and hearing, keen eyesight at night, easy to cross any terrain, low vulnerability, more stamina – all of these dogs were valued quality especially in military affairs.
Top Russian generals contained the dogs in the army. Peter I had a dog who, during his numerous campaigns and battles helped to maintain contact with the military commanders, carrying orders and reports.
During the siege of Sevastopol, in the hostilities in the Caucasus and the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878. dogs used primarily as a guard. In the 40’s of the century before last when the conduct to the Caucasus mountain warfare in military fortifications on the Black Sea contain several watchdogs «on rations from the Treasury», as stated, and one of the orders. For these dogs have been arranged in front of the fortress dugout. In 1892, in 83 th Infantry Regiment in the Caucasus Samara had 30 dogs trained fetching ammunition.
In the Anglo-Boer War of 1899 in the British Army collie «Collie» bear health service.
In the Russian-Japanese war of 1904-1905. in parts of the Russian army dogs have also successfully used for patrol and sanitary services.
Dog training in those days was primitive. In the Caucasian army, for example, it was the fact that the dogs are trained to bark at the sight of people in the uniform of the hostile army. This time barking warned of the proximity of the enemy.
But accustomed to the indiscriminate barking dogs sometimes prevented the fighting troops. For example, in the storming of the fortress of Kars in 1835, some storming columns had been prematurely discovered by the Turks because of the barking dogs that accompanied the column.
However, the implementation of dog care, messengers and guard service, carry ammunition, etc., has brought great benefit to the troops and took an increasingly organized.
In 1912, in Izmailovo Guards regiment was organized by Russia’s first military field kennel dogs. Used it almost exclusively bred dog breeds zrdel-Terriers, which believed then, especially enduring. A year later, a small nursery military dogs were already in all the Guard infantry regiments. But this event has not been sufficiently supported by the Government and not widespread.
Therefore, in the imperialist war 1914 – 1918 gg. in the Russian army was only about 300 dogs.
In Germany, work on the use of dogs in military affairs began in 1884 (approximately 40 years after the first use of dogs in the Russian army). Dogs are trained primarily to guard, care, guard duty and respect.
In the war of 1914-1918. German Army had 30 thousand well-trained dogs (at the beginning of the war, there were 5 thousand). Germanic command requisitioned in Belgium and the northern provinces of France, all suitable for military use dogs and organized in Germany, a number of nurseries.
In France, England and other countries in the army at that time was a small number of dogs, B 1914 Belgium had in his army, about 250 dogs, England 100 and France – only a few units. The successful use of dogs in military affairs led to a demand by the parts of the French and British armies on the supply of their dogs, in connection with the French Army Department seized a large number of dogs in the population. By teaching them were involved in amateur and professional trainers. During the war was prepared to 10 000 dogs, which are held mainly by the service.
Experience of the First World War showed that service dogs can bring substantial benefits in the military. It is no accident for the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 defeated Germany was to allocate Britain, France and other countries of the victorious several thousand dogs. However, the use of dogs in the armies of capitalist countries has not received further development.
Great help in improving the quality of service dog provided the Soviet public. Thousands of workers, members of DOSAAF actively involved in breeding dogs and their training.
Start using dogs for investigative service belongs to the distant past. Used literature there are references to the investigative work of the dogs are in slave society. Working dogs to search people on the trail in the subsequent years gradually expanded in different countries.
Detection dogs (bloodhound) began to be applied in Russia in the fifties of last century for the protection of state borders. The dogs carried the guard service, as well as service for the detection and prosecution of the trail detention referred across the border violators.
Organization Investigative Service dogs in Russia dates to 1906 in 1908 was based «Society for the promotion and use of dogs in the police patrol service». This society numbered several dozen members from the police, gendarmes and high officials.
For 6 years the number of members of the society it was already several hundred people. Until the October Revolution, leadership training specialists of service dog breeding in Russia has been concentrated in this society. B schools of the society prepared trainers, agents detection dogs, and several years later, in 1911, already more than 60 cities had service dogs for tracing and bypass-guard services. This caused a great need for specialist trainers. In St. Petersburg, Warsaw, Tashkent, Vladivostok, Pskov and other cities opened a number of special schools and nurseries.
War of 1914-1918. completely disrupted the business Investigative dogs. By the beginning of 1918, one could hardly count at all over the country at least a hundred detection dogs.
After the Great October Socialist Revolution, the case Investigation dog, subordinate objectives of socialist property, beginning to develop rapidly. In Petrograd organized school-nursery sniffer-dogs Criminal Investigation.
To work in the school were involved in the best of that time, specialists of this case. It was prepared a lot of young professionals, agents for the sniffer-dogs. The example of Petrograd school nurseries were organized by many departments. Organized school nurseries Border Guard, a paramilitary security industry and transport, etc.
In these schools, nurseries, provides training and training of dogs for different purposes. Great work on the issues of service dog breeding, develop methods and techniques of training dogs on a modern scientific basis.
Currently, the development of these issues involve academics, teaching Pavlov on conditioned reflexes is the theoretical basis for training of dogs, and school nurseries, the main centers in directing the service dog breeding in a particular department. At these schools, nurseries rests synthesis of experience with dogs, and development issues to improve it.
Sheepdogs are widely used in state and collective farms as indispensable assistants to manage the herd, protect it, the search for stragglers and lost animals. Sheepdogs help the shepherd to keep the herd at a particular site, fly backward and going toward the animals, protect them from wolves. At the same time, herding dog helps to protect the fields from damage by cattle in cattle.
In Central Asia to protect flocks from predators has long been used Central Asian Shepherd. The constant struggle with the robbers took the dog vicious and fearless.
Caucasian Shepherd – a powerful and vicious dogs – well protects the herds of animals and is widespread in the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia.
In the north, for reindeer grazing use Nenets Laika.
Dogs relations serve to deliver the reports, orders and other documents between the two moving or stationary posts at a distance, up to 3-5 km, breaking length and 1 km for 3-5 minutes. With skillful use of dogs can completely replace the messengers, reducing to 3-4 times the time usually spent by messenger to deliver the documents.
In the USSR organized dog breeding on a scientific basis, dog we have is based on a sound scientific basis, pa best achievements of Soviet science – Michurinian biology and Pavlovian physiology.
Teaching Pavlov on the higher nervous activity and on conditioned reflexes ended kustarschine and subjective approach to training dogs.
Trainers have a single scientifically sound method of training dogs.
The Role of NGOs in the development of a service dog. Dog-trainer of the Soviet Union is becoming more popular among the masses. It is hard to find a place in our country, where there would be fans of dogs.
B in 1925 when Vseohot-union was organized by the central section of canine lovers. In 1928, the Section joined the wider voluntary social organizations Osoaviakhim. Were organized gosplemrassadniki, departmental and public nurseries, training club, began extensive training of specialists in the service dog, turned scientific research and exchange of experience in this field.
In contrast to the pre-revolutionary organizations with few members exclusively of representatives of the propertied classes, with parochial objectives, our voluntary society Osoaviakhim and now DOSAAF united masses of working people – a service dog enthusiasts. Section of a service dog for us and there are large numbers. In some cities – Moscow, Leningrad and others – there are clubs of service dogs.
Most work is done DOSAAF to improve the breed of dogs, drawing the broad masses of the population to breeding and raising of dogs service rocks.