Health problems and preventive health care

Caucasian Mountain dogs grow healthy and don`t fall ill if they are kept in dry and clean conditions, if they get correct feeding and trained outdoors regularly. Strictly adhere to veterinary requirements: annually make vaccinations against hydrophobia and plague. To find out if a dog is well fed, once a month it must be weighed.

It is essential to strictly adhere to the rules of sanitary hygiene. If you determine or just suspect that the dog fall ill with a disease, you should start treatment as quickly as possible and isolate your dog.

Healthy or ill?

The beginning Caucasian Mountain dog owners frequently ask the question as to how to distinguish a healthy dog from a sick one? Actually, it is to easy to recognize an injury, and how to recognize a disease and make a diagnosis?

healthy Caucasian Mountain dog is usually active and merry, it has a shining fur, eyes are clear, mucosa is not inflamed, nose (or ” forepart”) cold and slightly moist (however the latter cannot always it serve as a reliable criterion). The dog has a good appetite, it leaves emptied bowels, has flat respiration and smooth motions.

Sick Caucasian Mountain dog is usually lacking interest or excitement, its fur is lacking luster. The dog eats less, its nose is dry and hot. The dog moves impatiently or becomes apathetic.

However, it is incorrect to detect the dog’s illness based only on these signs.

There are additional methods of determining the status of health of the dogs: thermometry, the calculation of respiration and pulse.


The normal temperature of the body of a Caucasian Mountain dog is 37,5°С-39°С. Many dogs at the age before 6 months have a normal temperature at 39,5°С.

Number of respirations

Respiratory rate can be investigated by calculating the number of inhalations or expirations during 1 minute. In this case they use several stages: on the motion of chest and stomach of the dog; on the motion of the wings of nose; by the application of hands to the chest, which gives the possibility to count motions.

Within the norm the number of respirations in a healthy dog varies in the significant limits: from 14 to 25-30 in a minute. This latitude of the frequency band of respiration depends on a number of factors. For example, Caucasian Mountain puppies breathe more frequent than adult dogs, since exchange of substances is more active in them. In females the respiration is more frequent than in the male dogs. The pregnant or pupped bitches breathe more frequent than non-pregnant.

Heart push and pulse

Besides the measurement of temperature and calculation of respiratory rate, for determining a dog’s disease there should be also made the calculation of heart push and pulse. It is easy to perceive the heart push, after applying palm to the chest of the dog to the left, somewhat lower than blade.

The number of pulses in a minute varies in the limits from 70 to 12C. This variation has its reasons. The young dogs have more frequent pulse than adult. Males have a less frequent pulse is than females.

During sultriness, heat, the muscular load, the emotional breakdowns pulse becomes more frequent.

With diseases, which are accompanied by an increase in temperature, respiration and pulse are quickened. The detailed study of pulse helps veterinary specialist to discover the state of cardiovascular system of the ill animal more completely,

But here you have determined that your dog has fallen ill. It is necessary to get veterinary assistance ASAP. The best thing is to consult a breeder or a specialist on this particular breed. When there is need of veterinary help, the breeder will recommend you what doctor to consult.

Diseases of caucasian mountain dogs

Dysplasia of a hip joint

This is the hereditary disease during which the astragalus is loos-jointed in a hip joint. During this disease the dog can limp on one or to both hind legs. During ageing of an animal arthritis can develop.

Knee dysplasia

It is a hereditary disease. It is typical for big dogs. Knee dysplasia comes on in consequence of different speed of growth of three bones forming a joint, which causes its deformation. The dog experiences pain, lameness can arise. The treatment can be by drugs or operation.

There are cases when the owners of Caucasian Mountain dogs go to the veterinaries with limping or rachitic puppies which cause joint dysplasia. Instead of treating those doctors tell owners that they bought a puppy with an inborn joint dysplasia. I believe that doctors do not have a right to diagnose congenital malformation when the owner comes to him some time after the purchase. The cause of such disease can be an injury, improper use of additional mineral forage (or its absence), bad feeding, confined keeping, accelerative forces, etc.

It is obvious that all congenital malformation can be seen with a bare eye in the age of 1,5 months. Such dogs have the same legs as those dogs who were improperly raised. All congenital malformation puppies are rejected. They don’t get documents. Inborn rachitis (Rickets) is well cured with a proper balanced feeding using additional mineral forage. Rachitis can not be cured with a grown dog as distorted bones can be improved in the period of raising only.

Inborn or acquired dysplasia can be stopped with the help of special medicines and additional mineral supplements on the initial stage.

Degenerative myelopathy

This is a progressing disease of the spinal cord, especially, its part responding for the transmission of information from the brain to hind legs. As a result of it, dogs are not able to drive properly with their hind legs, total loss of walking habits is possible. Often degenerative myelopathy is incurable and the dog is put down. In some cases, the intake of Е vitamin can improve a dog’s condition.

Volvulus of bowels

It is a disease, when a stomach fills with gas or air and kinks. Such a thing can happen if a Caucasian Mountain dog eats one time a day, but a large portion at once. Or when the dog eats and drinks very quickly, swallowing a large quantity of food. While volvulus of bowels the dog becomes passive, restless, depressive, its stomach is stretched, there is an increased salivation, the dog tries to belch, but can not. It is important to bring your dog to a veterinarian as quickly as possible.

Exocrine failure of a pancreas

This is a genetic disease of a pancreas, during which the cells manufacturing digestive enzymes are destroyed. During it, food does not assimilate nor digests. The first signs: bloating, watery feces, appetite’s and weight’s loss. Special enzymes are added into a dog’s food for treatment.


Most often found helminthosis is caused by penetration into an organism and by growth of parasitic nematodes called toxocariasis. The dogs infected with cestoids are treated with medicines taking helminths from the intestine. Prophylaxis of helminthiasis of dogs requires frequent survey of animals and during its detection – treatment (dehelmintization) is needed. The dog’s bedding must be changed; daily excreta must be buried into soil. After dehelmintization a dog’s kennel must be intensely scalded with boiling lye.

The presence of intestinal parasites in dogs is manifested varied and it depends on abundance of the worms, their type and on the state of the organism of dog itself. Intestinal parasites render especially harmful effect to the dogs of young age.

In dogs infected by worms can be noted the spasms, itch/buzzing in the rear passage, diarrhea, bolts. Animals grow thin, in spite of valuable feeding, their fitness for work it is lowered. Ascarids can cause even intestinal impassability in dogs, traumatize internal organs/controls, and also separate/liberate the poisonous substances (toxins), which frequently leads to the death of puppy and young dog. the puppies, infected by worms, are arranged/located to the infectious diseases.

Preventive maintenance and treatment. Valuable hygienic feeding and content is the main veterinary-sanitary measure of the preventive maintenance of helminths in dogs. It is necessary to note that the Caucasian Mountain dogs, that obtain daily the complex of vitamins A, B, D, s with the fodder, are infected by helminths more thinly / less frequently than the dogs, that do not obtain the vitamins of this complex.

For the purpose of the preventive maintenance of intestinal parasites in adult Caucasian Mountain dogs are recommended 2 times a year in spring and in autumn to push worms.

Immediately after the purchase of a Caucasian Mountain puppy it is necessary to drive away worms in it, even if outwardly helminthic invasion is not manifested. Worms can be in each puppy. During the first year of the life of a puppy the preventive maintenance from the worms is done every 2 months. With the detection of worms in feces I recommend such preparations as Drantal+azioks+ from all forms of worms. To use necessarily, accurately following instruction, compulsorily taking into account the weight of puppy.

Infectious diseases of caucasian mountain dogs

Dog plague

Signs: body temperature is increased, a respiratory and a digestive system, sometimes the central nervous system are ruined. Dog plague viruses cause the disease. Healthy dogs are infected through a contact with diseased ones. The disease is spreading through things infected by a virus too. The dogs sick with plague have visible changes in the eyes and nose, loose bowels of the dogs start. The sick dogs do not take food, lie in darkened places, and lose weight. The dogs are ill for 3-4 weeks. The dogs who were ill with plague acquire immunity.

The dogs are treated with antibiotics, sulfanilamide drugs, specific sera. The dogs being sick with plague can not be strolled outdoors. The kennel should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected.


Domestic animals and people most often are infected by a bite of a sick dog. In the places of a bite the viruses are getting on a wound and then penetrating into the brain functioning of which is strongly disturbed. You need to observe a dog constantly, to isolate it at the first signs and put down, because this disease is incurable.

Dogs can be protected against these infections with the help of vaccination. Vaccination of the puppies should be done before the age of 1, 5- 2 months. Adult dogs are proposed to be vaccinated one time a year.

First aid

Each owner of a Caucasian Mountain dog must have a veterinary first aid kit. The following medicines should be in it:

  • the veterinary thermometer with a strong string with a clip at the end to attach it to the dog`s hair;
  • folded scissors; a rubber warming-pan (with 70-100 g of capacity);
  • iodine solution (the 20-25th gram) ;
  • 10 g of potassium permanganate; the 2 or 3 packings of a bandage;
  • 25 g of white cotton wool;
  • 50 g of gray cotton wool for compresses;
  • oilcloth for compresses;
  • 50 g of fish oil;
  • 20 g of boric acid;
  • ointment of Synthomycine (5-10%).

Correct and rapid rendering to the medical veterinary aid of an injured animal not only will help to save life for your four-footed friend, but also will considerably facilitate the process of further treatment. Approaches and methods of rendering of first aid, presented here, are very simple, they do not require special veterinary, medical or biological preparation; therefore any dog owner can successfully apply them.

Starting to aid the injured or suddenly fallen ill dog, you should estimate the general state of the animal, explain the source of injury or disease and, if there is a possibility, try to rapidly remove this reason. Such reasons most frequently include the action of current with the electrotrauma, the influence of solar rays with the solar shock, hemorrhage with the injury, action of acids and alkalis, breakdown of respiration or heart activity with the loss of consciousness. Consequently, first of all in such cases it is necessary to open the current source, to darken the room or to transfer dog into the shadow, if it underwent solar impact, to stop hemorrhage, to neutralize the influence of acid or alkali, to conduct artificial respiration. Of course the owner of a dog must know how to cope with electricity, acids and alkalis in order, not to be injured himself. It is also necessary to know the methods of conducting artificial respiration to dogs.

The form of the second stage of aid rendering depends on the fact of what has occurred to the dog – an accident or it fell ill. In case of injuries and burns it is necessary to put bandage, attempt to stop hemorrhage, with the fractures – to put a splinter. If the dog fell ill, give it appropriate medicine.

Health problems and preventive health care

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